The term work means that physical activity that involves a waste of physical or mental energy to achieve a set purpose. In general, the purpose of the work is to procure essential goods for living other types of goods, especially through a monetary value acquired from third parties in the form of compensation.
In the modern world, work is carried out with the exercise of a profession and on a legal level, subordinate work is distinguished from autonomous and para-subordinate work.
Work is therefore at the basis of the functioning of nations and society, and especially in Italy it is given ample space within the Constitution. In fact, Article 1 of the Italian Constitution ("Italy is a democratic republic founded on work") indicates work as the founding element of the state.
But this is not the only article in our Constitution that talks about work. For example, the following articles indicate a series of workers’ rights with particular attention to the weaker groups, such as women:
- * art 4: "The Republic recognizes the right to work for all citizens and promotes the conditions that make this right effective";
- * art 35: “The Republic protects work in all its forms and applications. It takes care of the training and professional development of workers ";
- * art 37: “The working woman has the same rights and, for the same work, the same wages as the worker. The working conditions must allow the fulfillment of his essential family function and ensure special adequate protection for the mother and child ";
Article 39, on the other hand, assigns to workers’ unions the power to stipulate "collective labor agreements with mandatory effect for all those belonging to the categories to which the contract refers", while the right to strike is guaranteed by article 40 .
Between 2014 and 2015 in Italy there was a reform of labor law with the approval of the Jobs Act which took place through a series of legislative measures passed between 2014 and 2015.